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Thymopentin: A Promising Immunotherapy for Chronic and Autoimmune Diseases
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Thymopentin: A Promising Immunotherapy for Chronic and Autoimmune Diseases

Views: 4000     Author: Polypeptideapi.com     Publish Time: 2024-03-21      Origin: BIOFDA

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Thymopentin: A Promising Immunotherapy for Chronic and Autoimmune Diseases


Immunotherapy: A New Frontier in Treating Chronic Diseases


Immune diseases have long plagued the physical and mental health of many individuals. With the development of the "Healthy China 2030" initiative, the focus of medical treatment has shifted from being "disease-centered" to "patient-centered." In areas such as oncology, liver disease, and infection, immunotherapy has emerged as a significant advancement, complementing traditional radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Among these, non-specific immunotherapy drugs are gaining increasing attention.



The Role of Immunotherapy


Immunotherapy works by stimulating the body's immune system to produce a large number of immune cells, enhancing their ability to phagocytize bacteria, cancer cells, and other pathogens. This process effectively strengthens the body's defenses and promotes overall health.



Thymopentin: A Key Player in Immunotherapy


Currently, several immunodrugs have been approved in China, including immunomodulators like thymopentin for injection. Thymopentin is composed of five amino acids: arginine, lysine, aspartic acid, valine, and tyrosine. It is a potent segment of thymogenin II, a single peptide compound derived from thymic hormones. Thymopentin mimics the physiological functions of thymogenin II, making it a powerful tool in immunotherapy.



Mechanism of Action


Thymopentin for injection, produced by Chengdu Shengnuo Biopharmaceutical, has a dual regulatory effect on the immune system. It promotes the maturation of T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood upon mitogen activation and increases the secretion of T cells in response to various antigens or lymphokines (such as α, γ interferon, IL-2, and IL-3). Additionally, it enhances the level of lymphokine receptors on T cells.


Moreover, thymopentin boosts lymphocyte responses by activating T4 helper cells. It may also influence the chemotaxis of NK precursor cells, increasing their cytotoxicity after exposure to interferon.



Clinical Applications


Thymopentin for injection is suitable for treating chronic hepatitis B and various primary or secondary T-cell deficiencies (such as congenital immunodeficiency in children). It is effective for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, childhood asthma, and asthmatic bronchitis. Furthermore, thymopentin is beneficial in conditions with low cellular immune function, such as viral hepatitis, upper respiratory tract infections, and persistent oral ulcers. It also serves as an adjuvant therapy for tumors.



Unique Properties of Thymopentin


One notable characteristic of thymopentin is its short half-life—approximately 1 minute in vivo. Despite this, it can induce prolonged immune regulation. Studies have shown that thymopentin is rapidly degraded by protease and aminopeptidase in human plasma, with a half-life of about 30 seconds. However, it remains longer in the abdominal cavity (up to 3.5-7 minutes) and retains 25% of its activity in saliva after 10 minutes.


This unique biological effect means that the body does not need to maintain a high plasma concentration of thymopentin to achieve immune regulation. Thus, thymopentin is an effective adjuvant therapy for long-term and chronic diseases.



Conclusion


As immunotherapy continues to advance, thymopentin represents a promising therapeutic option, offering significant benefits in treating chronic and autoimmune diseases. Its ability to modulate the immune system effectively, despite its short half-life, makes it a valuable addition to modern medical treatments.

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